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2020/9 Balázs R. Sziklai – Károly Héberger Apportionment and Districting by Sum of Ranking Differences Download publication

2020/9 Apportionment and Districting by Sum of Ranking Differences Balázs R. Sziklai – Károly Héberger

Sum of Ranking Differences is an innovative statistical method that ranks competing solutions based on a reference point. The latter might arise naturally, or can be aggregated from the data. We provide two case studies to feature both possibilities. Apportionment and districting are two critical issues that emerge in relation to democratic elections. Theoreticians invented clever heuristics to measure malapportionment and the compactness of the shape of the constituencies, yet, there is no unique best method in either cases. Using data from Norway and the US we rank the standard methods both for the apportionment and for the districting problem. In case of apportionment, we find that all the classical methods perform reasonably well, with subtle but significant differences. By a small margin the Leximin method emerges as a winner, but — somewhat unexpectedly — the non-regular Imperiali method ties for first place. In districting, the Lee-Sallee index and a novel parametric method the so-called Moment Invariant performs the best, although the latter is sensitive to the function’s chosen parameter.

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2020/10 Dániel Horn - Hubert János Kiss Do individuals with children value the future more? Download publication

2020/10 Do individuals with children value the future more? Dániel Horn - Hubert János Kiss

In recent years public and political debate suggested that individuals with chil- dren value the future more. We attempt to substantiate the debate and using a representative survey we investigate if the number of children (or simply having children) indeed is associated with a higher valuation of the future that we proxy with an aspect of time preferences, patience. We find that in general there is no correlation between having children and patience, though for young women with below-median income we find some weak evidence in line with the conjecture. We also show some evidence that for this subpopulation it is not having children that matters, but marital status. More precisely, young single women are less patient than other young non-single women.

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2020/11 Krisztina Antal-Pomázi On the welfare effects of differential pricing Download publication

2020/11 On the welfare effects of differential pricing Krisztina Antal-Pomázi

The paper discusses the economic aspects of the most important questions (such as demand response or capacity allocation) related to differential pricing. First, we consider a revenue-neutral introduction of peak-load pricing. We examine under what circumstances does peak-load pricing lead to a Pareto improvement compared to uniform pricing. Second, we analyze what properties of customers make it profitable for a firm to introduce peak-load pricing. We find that on the supply side, incentives to introduce differential pricing may be technology-driven (i. e. high on-peak marginal costs) or demand-driven (i.e. low elasticity of substitution). Consumers benefit more if they can adopt to prices more flexibly. Innovative technology, such as smart meters, may help consumers benefit from real-time pricing. Such technology is expensive to install. This makes it necessary that consumers cover part of the costs. If they are myopic, or other effects of bounded rationality hinder their commitment, regulatory intervention might be needed to increase welfare. The more accessible enabling technology (price comparison websites, cheap smart meters etc.) will be, the more everyone will benefit from time-varying pricing.

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2020/12 Sára Khayouti – Hubert János Kiss – Dániel Horn Patient democracies? Download publication

2020/12 Patient democracies? Sára Khayouti – Hubert János Kiss – Dániel Horn

We test if the political regime of a country associates with the patience of the citizens. Recent findings indicate that i) more democratic countries tend to have higher growth, and ii) patience correlates positively with economic development, suggesting a potential link between the political regime and patience. We document a positive association between the level of democracy and patience for most of the political regime indices that we use, even after controlling for region, economic development, geographical conditions, and culture. We report some evidence that political participation is behind our findings.

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2020/13 Sára Khayouti – Hubert János Kiss – Dániel Horn Does trust associate with political regime? Download publication

2020/13 Does trust associate with political regime? Sára Khayouti – Hubert János Kiss – Dániel Horn

Since trust correlates with economic development and in turn economic development associates with political regime, we conjecture that there may be a relationship between trust and political regime. We investigate if trust aggregated on the country level correlates with the political regime. We do not find any significant association, with or without taking into account other factors (e.g. regional location, economic development, geographic conditions, culture) as well.

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2020/23 Mária Lackó Disparities in premature and old age mortality in Europe in the first decade of the 2000s Download publication

2020/23 Disparities in premature and old age mortality in Europe in the first decade of the 2000s Mária Lackó

This study presents disparities in mortality rates of 38-41 European countires and attempts at giving explanations for these. Explanatory factors of premature (0-64 ages) and old age (above 65 years old) mortality rates are compared accordig to cause-specific diseases and genders for 2009. In addition, mortality disparities due to avoidable (preventable and treatable) diseases are analyzed on a narrower sample of countries for 2015.

The model applied in the investigations takes into account the living conditions and life-styles of the population in the given countries i.e. GDP per capita, geographical location, air-pollution, educational level, tobacco and spirit consumption habits, and health care expenditures.

The most astonishing result is connected with the effect of air pollution: this factor has a similarly big weight in increasing premature male mortality as the well-known factor, tobacco consumption. Moreover, in the case of old age male mortality air pollution even dominate the effect of smoking.

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THE HUNGARIAN LABOUR MARKET 2019 Editors: Károly Fazekas, Márton Csillag, Zoltán Hermann, Ágota Scharle

The Hungarian Labour Market Yearbook presents characteristics of the Hungarian labour market and employment policy, and provides an in-depth analysis of a topical issue each year. It is an important focus for the analyses and data published in the yearbook series to serve as a good source of knowledge on the various topics of labour economics and human resources management. The yearbook series presents the main characteristics and trends of the Hungarian labour market in an international comparison based on the available statistical information, conceptual research and empirical analyses in a clearly structured and easily accessible format. Continuing our previous editorial practice, we selected an area that we considered especially important from the perspective of understanding Hungarian labour market trends and the effectiveness of evidence-based employment policy. This year’s ‘In Focus’ revolves around education the labour market situation of youth.

The book can be downloaded in one file or by chapters:




The Hungarian labour market in 2018 (Tamás Bakó & Judit Lakatos)

In Focus: Young people in education and in the labour market

Introduction (Márton Csillag, Zoltán Hermann & Ágota Scharle)

1 Young people in the labour market and in education – changes between 2002 and 2018 (Márton Csillag, Ágota Scharle, Tamás Molnár & Endre Tóth)

2 School education

2.1 The impact of reading and mathematics test results on future earnings and employment (Zoltán Hermann, Dániel Horn, János Köllő, Anna Sebők, András Semjén & Júlia Varga)

2.2 The impact of school tracks on student performance in upper-secondary education (Zoltán Hermann)

2.3 Application to and admission into upper-secondary education (Zoltán Hermann & Júlia Varga)

2.4 The effect of the 2013 vocational education reform on student achievement (Zoltán Hermann, Dániel Horn & Dániel Tordai)

2.5 The impact of decreasing compulsory school-leaving age on dropping out of school (Zoltán Hermann)

K2.5 What do 17-year-olds who don’t go to school do? (János Köllő & Anna Sebők)

3 Gaining work experience

3.1 Student work (Bori Greskovics & Ágota Scharle)

3.2 The short-term labour market effects of apprenticeship training in vocational schools (Dániel Horn)

3.3 Casual and other forms of work (Bori Greskovics & Ágota Scharle)

4 Early unemployment and later labour market outcomes

4.1 Does the economic recession have permanent effects? (Márton Csillag)

K4.1 What are the consequences of young people entering the labour market during an economic crisis? International outlook (Endre Tóth)

4.2 Unemployment among labour market entrants (Márton Csillag)

5 The impact of employment policies

5.1 Job search behaviour of young people not in education, training or employment (Tamás Molnár)

K5.1 Job search channels (Tamás Molnár)

5.2 Active labour market instruments targeting young people and the Youth Guarantee Programme (Judit Krekó, Tamás Molnár & Ágota Scharle)

5.3 The effect of the job protection action plan (András Svraka)

5.4 The role of the minimum wage in the evolution of young people’s earnings (Márton Csillag)

5.5 Youth in public employment, with particular emphasis on early secondary school leavers (György Molnár)

6 The situation of Roma youth

6.1 Schooling and employment of Roma youth: changes between 2011 and 2016 (Ágota Scharle)

6.2 Neighbourhood-related differences in the share of youth not in education, employment or training before and after lowering the school-leaving age (János Köllő & Anna Sebők)

7 Adult education and training and over-qualification

7.1 Workplace and non-formal education and training of youth (Júlia Varga)

7.2 The growing importance of non-cognitive skills in job search and at work (Károly Fazekas)

7.3 The labour market situation of young graduates, overqualification and the value of higher education degrees (Júlia Varga)

8 Geographic and occupational mobility

8.1 Occupational mobility among youth with different educational attainment levels (Júlia Varga)

8.2 Outward migration of youth – Young people working abroad (Ágnes Hárs & Dávid Simon)

Labour market policy tools (June 2018 – May 2019) (Miklós Hajdu, Ágnes Makó, Fruzsina Nábelek & Zsanna Nyírő)

Statistical data

Index of tables and figures



THE HUNGARIAN LABOUR MARKET 2020 Editors: Károly Fazekas, Péter Elek, Tamás Hajdu

The Hungarian Labour Market Yearbook series was launched in 2000 by the Institute of Economics, in order to report on the processes and latest trends of the Hungarian labour market and employment policy, and provide an in-depth analysis of a particular subject each year.
In compiling the content of each yearbook, the intention of the editorial board is to deliver relevant and useful information on the labour market trends and the legislative and institutional background of employment policy in Hungary, and on the latest findings of Hungarian and international research studies.


The book can be downloaded in one file or by chapters:



The Hungarian labour market in 2019–2020 (Tamás Bakó & Judit Lakatos)
Labour market policies
1 Labour market policy tools (June 2019 – May 2020) (Miklós Hajdu, Ágnes Makó, Fruzsina Nábelek & Zsanna Nyírő)
2 Labour market measures in Europe in reponse to the coronavirus pandemic (Ágnes Makó & Fruzsina Nábelek)
3 Corporate perceptions and expectations of the impacts of the Covid-19 pandemic and the crisis management steps taken (Dániel Bacsák & Ágoston Horváth)
In Focus: Labour market and health
Introduction (Péter Elek & Tamás Hajdu)
1 Health and labour force status in Hungary and Europe (Anikó Bíró, Réka Branyiczki & Zsófia Kollányi)
2 Income, labor market and regional inequalities

2.1 Inequality of mortality and morbidity by income (Anikó Bíró, Péter Elek, Tamás Hajdu, Gábor Kertesi & Dániel Prinz)
K2.1 Disparities in the occurrence and care of myocardial infarction in the light of labour market correlations (Annamária Uzzoli)
2.2 The correlations of labour market status, the prevalence of certain chronic diseases and healthcare expenditure (Petra Fadgyas-Freyler & Tibor Fadgyas)
2.3 The distribution of informal payments, of the use of private health care and of unmet healthcare needs along the axis of socioeconomic status (Petra Baji)
3 Employee health

3.1 Labor income, health status, and healthcare spending (Anikó Bíró & Dániel Prinz)
3.2 Firm characteristics and health (Márta Bisztray, Anikó Bíró & Dániel Prinz)
3.3 Accidents at work (János Köllő & Zsuzsanna Sinka-Grósz)
K3.1 Accident risk and wages – theoretical considerations (János Köllő)
K3.2 The effect of the smoking ban on the newborns of women working in the hospitality sector (Tamás Hajdu & Gábor Hajdu)
3.4 The incentive effects of sickness absence compensation (Márton Csillag, Kinga Marczell & Lili Márk)
K3.3 The effect of the development of outpatient health care services on workers – the example of a social infrastructure development project (Márton Csillag & Péter Elek)
K3.4 Health of Central and Eastern European migrants (Anikó Bíró)
4 The healthcare system as employer

4.1 The health of healthcare workers (Júlia Varga)
4.2 The out-migration of physicians between 2009–2017 (Júlia Varga)
5 Unemployment and health

5.1 The impact of the economic crisis and job loss on health(Péter Elek, Judit Krekó & Balázs Munkácsy)
K5.1 Health care use following public works participation (Márton Csillag & Balázs Reizer)
5.2 The long run health consequences of the economic transition (Anikó Bíró & Réka Branyiczki)
6 Ageing and the labour market

6.1 Old-age retirement and health (Anikó Bíró & Péter Elek)
6.2 The labour market context of the increasing demand for palliative care (Károly Fazekas & Melinda Tir)
7 Reduced capacity to work, disability, rehabilitation

7.1 Employment of the disabled population and demand-side policy measures (Judit Krekó & Ágota Scharle)
K7.1 The disability employment quota and the rehabilitation contribution (Judit Krekó & Ágota Scharle)
7.2 Changes in disability benefits and their impacts (Judit Krekó & Ágota Scharle)
K7.2 Assessing work capacity and measuring the size of the disabled population (Boldmaa Bat-Erdene, Judit Krekó & Ágota Scharle)
8 Health shocks in childhood and youth and educational attainment

8.1 The effect of hospitalisation on the school performance of children (Zoltán Hermann & Dániel Horn)
K8.1 An overview of the literature on the subsequent impacts of childhood shocks (Ágnes Szabó-Morvai)
8.2 Teenage motherhood and the labour market (Anna Adamecz-Völgyi)
9 The first wave of the coronavirus pandemic

9.1 Policy responses to the coronavirus pandemic in Hungary during the first half of 2020 (Balázs Váradi)
9.2 Employment during the first wave of Covid-19 (János Köllő)
Appendix. Admin3 – Panel of linked administrative data (Anna Sebők)
Statistical data
Index of tables and figures

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